Structure of endothelial glycocalyx and its activation of vascular muscle relaxation via nitric oxide (NO) in response to increased shear force3,6
The endothelial glycocalyx is a microscopically thin gel-like layer that coats the entire luminal side of the vascular endothelium. It is the key to endothelial health because it prevents cholesterol and other particles from adhering to or penetrating the endothelial wall.
Its functions in vascular and micro-vascular health include:
The endothelial glycocalyx is a delicate structure and can be damaged under many conditions. The primary contributors to breakdown of the endothelial glycocalyx are high blood glucose, oxidative stress and inflammation. Pathologies associated with impaired endothelial glycocalyx include:
Arterosil, a patent-pending nutraceutical, is the only product in the world that has been clinically proven to rebuild the endothelial glycocalyx. Arterosil contains specialized sulfated polysaccharides (SSP) derived from a rare seaweed. Certain SSP rich seaweeds are glycocalyx regenerating compounds (GRC) and have been reported to possess anticoagulant and antithrombotic activity13.
The SSP in Arterosil has a similar chemical structure to heparan sulfate found abundantly in human endothelial glycocalyx and may exert its biological activities by regenerating endothelial glycocalyx.
Arterosil is available exclusively through licensed health care practitioners. Manufactured in the USA, Arterosil currently ships to the 50 United States and Puerto Rico only.
U.S. and International Patents Pending (covers pharmaceutical and nutraceutical embodiments)
Numerous cellular, animal and human studies have been conducted on Arterosil, including the following:
MRI Carotid Plaque Regression Study
Hospital in Beijing — Human Pilot
Finding: Study in early phase – licensed health care practitioners may view initial data here
Glycocalyx Mediated Endothelial Function as Measured by EndoPat
Medicus CRO — Human Study
Finding: Arterosil demonstrated measurable improvement in endothelial function
Endothelial Function as Measured by Arterial Elasticity
Baylor Heart Institute Campus – Human Study
Finding: Arterosil improved endothelial function – arterial elasticity increased by an average of 89.6%
Glycocalyx Regeneration Study
Chinese Academy of Sciences — Cellular Study
Finding: Arterosil repairs and regenerates glucose damaged endothelial glycocalyx
Leukocyte Adhesion Study
Maastricht University — Animal Study
Finding: Arterosil prevents the increase of leukocyte adhesion and inhibits endothelium-mediated inflammation
1.Bernhard F. Becker, Daniel Chappell, Dirk Bruegger, Thorsten Annecke & Matthias Jacob. Therapeutic Strategies Targeting the Endothelial Glycocalyx: Acute Deﬁcits, but Great Potential. Cardiovascular Research (2010) 87:300–310.
2.Bernard F. Becker, Daniel Chappell & Matthias Jacob. Endothelial Glycocalyx and Coronary Vascular Permeability: the Fringe Benefit. Basic Research in Cardiology (2010) 105:687–701.
3.F. E. Curry & R. H. Adamson. Endothelial Glycocalyx: Permeability Barrier and Mechanosensor. Annals of Biomedical Engineering (2012) 40:828–839.
4.A. W. Mulivor & H. H. Lipowsky. Role of Glycocalyx in Leukocyte-endothelial Cell Adhesion. American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology (2002) 283(4):H1282–H1291.
5.Sietze Reitsma, Dick W. Slaaf, Hans Vink, Marc A. M. J. van Zandvoort & Mirjam G. A. oude Egbrink. The Endothelial Glycocalyx: Composition, Functions, and Visualization. Eur J Physiol (2007) 454:345–359.
6.Bingmei M. Fu & John M. Tarbell. Mechano-sensing and Transduction by Endothelial Surface Glycocalyx: Composition, Structure, and Function. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med. (2013) 5(3): 381–390.
7.Ties A. Mulders, Max Nieuwdorp, Erik S Stroes, Hans Vink & Sara-Joan Pinto-Sietsma. Non-invasive Assessment of Microvascular Dysfunction in Families with Premature Coronary Artery Disease. Int J Cardiol. (2013) 168(5):5026-5028.
8.Max Nieuwdorp, Timon W. van Haeften, Mirella C.L.G. Gouverneur, Hans L. Mooij, Miriam H.P. van Lieshout, Marcel Levi, Joost C.M. Meijers, Frits Holleman, Joost B.L. Hoekstra, Hans Vink, John J.P. Kastelein & Erik S.G. Stroes. Loss of Endothelial Glycocalyx During Acute Hyperglycemia Coincides With Endothelial Dysfunction and Coagulation Activation In Vivo. Diabetes (2006) 55(2):480-486.
9.Claudia Nussbaum, Ana Cavalcanti Fernandes Heringa, Zuzana Mormanova, Alexandra F. Puchwein-Schwepcke, Susanne Bechtold-Dalla Pozza & Orsolya Genzel-Boroviczény. Early Microvascular Changes with Loss of the Glycocalyx in Children with Type 1 Diabetes. J Pediatr. (2014) 164(3):584-589.
10.Carmen A. Vlahu, Bregtje A. Lemkes, Dirk G. Struijk, Marion G. Koopman, Raymond T. Krediet & Hans Vink. Damage of the Endothelial Glycocalyx in Dialysis Patients. J Am Soc Nephro (2012) l23:1900–1908.
11.Remy J.H. Martens, Hans Vink, Robert J. van Oostenbrugge & Julie Staals. Sublingual Microvascular Glycocalyx Dimensions in Lacunar Stroke Patients. Cerebrovasc Dis (2013) 35:451–454.
12.Elaheh Rahbar, Jessica C Cardenas, Gyulnar Baimukanova, Benjamin Usadi, Roberta Bruhn, Shibani Pati, Sisse R Ostrowski, Pär I Johansson, John B Holcomb & Charles E Wade. Endothelial Glycocalyx Shedding and Vascular Permeability in Severely Injured Trauma Patients. J Transl Med. (2015) 13:117.
13.M. F. de Jesus Raposo, A. M. B. de Morais & R. M. S. C. De Morais. Marine Polysaccharides from Algae with Potential Biomediacal Applications (2015) Mar. Drug 13:2967-3028.