Structure of endothelial glycocalyx and its activation of vascular muscle relaxation via nitric oxide (NO) in response to increased shear force
The endothelial glycocalyx is a microscopically thin gel-like layer that coats the entire luminal side of the vascular endothelium. It is the key to endothelial health because it prevents cholesterol and other particles from adhering to or penetrating the endothelial wall.
Its functions in vascular and micro-vascular health include:
The endothelial glycocalyx is a delicate structure and can be damaged under many conditions. The primary contributors to breakdown of the endothelial glycocalyx are high blood glucose, oxidative stress (such as smoking) and inflammation. Pathologies associated with impaired endothelial glycocalyx include:
The primary active ingredient in Arterosil® is a negatively charged polysaccharide derived from a rare green seaweed.
Green seaweed polysaccharides have been reported to possess anticoagulant and antithrombotic activity.
The polysaccharide in Arterosil® has a similar chemical structure to heparan sulfate found abundantly in human endothelial glycocalyx and may exert its biological activities by regenerating endothelial glycocalyx.
A new clinical study tested the hypothesis that Arterosil® rapidly improves arterial elasticity and pulse wave reflections through enhancing the endothelial glycocalyx and its mediated arterial function.
Nineteen healthy human subjects were randomly recruited for a single blinded clinical study, which was conducted at an independent cardiology center on the Baylor Medical Campus in Plano, Texas.
The vascular health condition was evaluated utilizing an FDA cleared, Class II plethysmography device.
Results of the study showed these average percentage improvements in arterial function within 60 to 90 minutes of consuming the product:
An earlier study of Arterosil® demonstrated measurable improvements in endothelial function as measured by EndoPat following consumption of the supplement.
There is additional research that establishes the multiple health benefits of a healthy glycocalyx.
Tests using lab animals showed the green seaweed found in Arterosil® reversed the leukocytes adherence to endothelium induced by enzymatic removal of glycocalyx (unpublished data).
Other researchers have reported that certain green seaweed polysaccharides enhance the endothelial glycocalyx and decreases the LDL permeability of human coronary artery endothelial cells14.
A Japanese study demonstrated that daily supplementation of the green seaweed found in Arterosil® for 6 weeks significantly lowered total and LDL cholesterol in borderline or mild hypercholesterolemia human subjects15.
Another study also from Japan later showed that oral administration of the seaweed found in Arterosil® to carbohydrate-loaded rats significantly reduced their blood glucose level compared to the control animals16.
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